Academic Guideline for MBBS Students Seeking FCPS, MD, MS and Other PG Admission

Mnemonics: Remember Everything Easily [Part-2]

Mnemonics for Traumatology and Orthopaedics TRAUMA AND ORTHOPAEDICS – Mnemonics Anatomy Cubital fossa contents Mnemonic: Please Remember Be Brave Medically From lateral to medial: P         Posterior interosseus nerve R         Radial nerve B         Biceps tendon B         Brachial artery M         Median nerve Adductor muscles of thigh Mnemonic: Post-Graduates Love their Bachelor Of Medicine P         Pectineus G         Gracilis […]

Rhinosporidiosis : Definition, Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, Investigation, Treatment

Introduction: Rhinosporidiosis is most common granulomatous condition of nose. It was first described by SEEBER in Argentina in 1900. It is endemic in India, Srilanka, South Africa, Bangladesh, Africa. Men are affected more commonly than female with a male female ratio 4:1. The disease most commonly occurs in children and in individuals aged 15-40 years. […]

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome & Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Aspiration of meconium contaminated amniotic fluid by a fetus or a newborn during birth is termed as meconium aspiration.   Passage of meconium in utero rarely occurs prior to 37 weeks of gestation, but it is more common in post 42 weeks of gestation, perinatal asphyxia, oligohydramnios, cesarean section delivery and in […]

Mnemonics: Remember Everything Easily [Part-1]

Mnemonics to remember Full Medical History Mnemonics for Full Medical History When taking a history: Mnemonic: OPERATES O         Onset of complaint P         Progress of complaint E         Exacerbating factors R         Relieving factors A         Associated symptoms T         Timing E         Episodes of being symptom-free S         Relevant Systemic and general inquiry can be added here Medications/allergies Mnemonic: PILLS P         […]

Febrile Convulsion (Seizure)

Febrile Convulsion (Seizures) Seizures: Seizure is defined as a paroxysmal involuntary disturbance of brain function that may be manifested as impairment or loss of consciousness, behavioral abnormalities, abnormal motor, sensory or autonomic function due to abnormal excessive, hyper synchronous discharges of CNS neurons.   What is febrile convulsion? Febrile seizures are defined as epileptic seizures […]

Ectopic Pregnancy- Clinical Presentation, Fate, Management

Definition: Implantation and development of the fertilized ovum any where other than normal site. Normal site for implantation: Anterior/post wall of body of uterus close to the fundus.   Common sites for Ectopic Pregnancy: Fallopian tube : Ampulla, Isthmus, infundibulam, interstitial Ovary Peritoneal cavity Rudimentary horns of bicornuate uterus Cervix   Risk Factors for Ectopic […]

Perinatal Asphyxia: Cause, Management, Complications

Perinatal asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn infant due to lack of oxygen (hypoxia) and /or a lack of perfusion (ischemia) to various organs, which will manifest as difficulty in establishing spontaneous respiration evident by delayed cry after birth, at least after 1 minute. Essential Criteria: Profound metabolic or mixed acidemia (pH<7) […]

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